It is well established that exercise improves health, and recent research has shown that exercise benefits the body in different ways, depending on the time of day. However, researchers still do not know why the timing of exercise gives these different effects. To gain a better understanding, an international team of researchers recently conducted the most comprehensive study to date of training conducted at different times of the day.
Their research shows how the body produces different health-promoting signaling molecules in an organ-specific way after exercise depending on the time of day. These signals have a broad impact on health, affecting sleep, memory, exercise performance and metabolic homeostasis. Their findings were recently published in the journal Cell metabolism.
“A better understanding of how exercise affects the body at different times of the day can help us maximize the benefits of exercise for people at risk for diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes,” says Professor Juleen R. Zierath from Karolinska Institutet and the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research (CBMR) at the University of Copenhagen.
Use of exercise to correct a defective body clock
Almost all cells regulate their biological processes over 24 hours, otherwise called a circadian rhythm. This means that the sensitivity of different tissues to the effects of exercise changes depending on the time of day. Previous research has confirmed that exercise timing according to our circadian rhythm can optimize the health-promoting effects of exercise.
The team of international scientists wanted a more detailed understanding of this effect, so they performed a series of experiments on mice that trained either early in the morning or late in the evening. Blood samples and various tissues, including brain, heart, muscle, liver, and fat, were collected and analyzed by mass spectrometry. This allowed the researchers to detect hundreds of different metabolites and hormone signaling molecules in each tissue and monitor how they were altered by exercising at different times of the day.
The result is an ‘Atlas of Exercise Metabolism’ – a comprehensive map of exercise-induced signaling molecules present in different tissues after exercise at different times of the day.
“As this is the first comprehensive study summarizing time- and exercise-dependent metabolism across multiple tissues, it is of great value to generate and refine systemic models of metabolism and organ cross-talk,” adds Dominik Lutter, Head of Computational Discovery Research at Helmholtz Diabetes. Center in Helmholtz Munich.
New insights include a deeper understanding of how tissues communicate with each other and how exercise can help ‘realign’ defective circadian rhythms in specific tissues – defective circadian clocks have been linked to an increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Finally, the study identified new training-induced signaling molecules in several tissues that need further research to understand how they can individually or collectively affect health.
“We not only show how different tissues respond to exercise at different times of the day, but we also suggest how these reactions are linked to induce an orchestrated adaptation that controls systemic energy homeostasis,” says Associate Professor Jonas Thue Treebak from CBMR at Copenhagen University, and co-author of the publication.
A resource for future training research
The study has several limitations. The experiments were performed in mice. While mice share many common genetic, physiological, and behavioral traits with humans, they also have important differences. For example, mice are nocturnal, and the form of training was also limited to treadmill running, which can give different results compared to high-intensity training. Finally, the effect of sex, age and disease were not taken into account in the analysis.
“Despite the limitations, it is an important study that helps lead further research that can help us better understand how exercise, if timed correctly, can help improve health,” says Assistant Professor Shogo Sato of Biological Department and Center for Biological Clocks Research at Texas A&M University and co-author.
Co-author Kenneth Dyar, head of metabolic physiology at the Helmholtz Diabetes Center in Helmholtz Munich, emphasized the usefulness of the atlas as a comprehensive resource for exercise biologists. “While our resource provides important new perspectives on energy metabolites and known signaling molecules, this is only the tip of the iceberg. We show some examples of how our data can be extracted to identify new tissue and time-specific signaling molecules,” he says. .
Exercise can have different effects morning and evening
Juleen R. Zierath, Atlas of Exercise Metabolism Reveals Time-Dependent Signatures of Metabolic Homeostasis, Cell metabolism (2022). DOI: 10.1016 / j.cmet.2021.12.016.
Provided by the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers
Citation: Researchers dive deep into the various effects of morning and evening exercise (2022, January 13) retrieved January 14, 2022 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-01-scientists-deep-effects-morning-evening .html
This document is subject to copyright. Except for any reasonable trade for the purpose of private investigation or research, no part may be reproduced without written permission. The content is provided for informational purposes only.